## Effective Charge Laboratory

The definition of the effective charge In this paper we will determine the effective charge of an electron. The effective charge is by definition the ratio (e/m). Background Information and History Thomson was the first scientist that used a selection of different gases to determine the ratio of the electric charge of a particle to

## Spherical shell potential (Griffiths)

The charged sphere A spherical shell has spherical symmetry and because of this we write its potential as $V(R,\theta)=V_0(\theta)$ ($\theta$ is the “polar” angle of the spherical coordinate system). a) When $V_0(\theta)=V_0(1-\theta^2)$ find the equation of definition for $V(R,\theta)$ if $r>R$. b) When $V_0(\theta)=V_0(\cos^2 \theta +2)$ please evaluate the potential of this spherical shell at